Kufr in Islam: what is it and what are it’s types :
Learning about Kufr is an essential part of Muslim’s knowledge about his faith. Without knowing Kufr, आप cannot do justice to Tawheed. Kufr is used in the Glorious Qur’an for people who cover up या hide the truth. It also uses this word to point out those who denied the favors of Allah द्वारा not accepting his Dominion and Authority. Therefore Kufr is the opposite of Imaan या Disbelief in Allah and a Non-Believer is called Kaafir.
A person can be categorized as Kaafir या Murtadd (meaning apostate) if the following twelve beliefs या actions...
Medicine, as it stands today, did not develop overnight. It is the culmination of efforts of millions of people, some we know and others we do not. The flame of civilization, including medicine, started thousands of years ago. The flame has been handed over from one generation to another, and from one country to the other. Depending on who took the sacred responsibility of hosting it, sometimes it got brighter and sometimes it got dimmer. However, it never died away, because if it did, it would have been too hard to start all over again.